Penalize well-designed but short programs. I Have done Journalism in Print Media. I am fun Loving Person and Believes in Spreading the Knowledge among people. Cannot easily accommodate non-procedural languages. QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON SOFTWARE PROCESS AND PRODUCT METRICS.pdf, interview question and answers for freshers, Best IAS Coaching Institutes in Coimbatore. Reduce overtime 5. Software metrics help people to develop better project estimates, produce higher-quality systems, and get products out the door on time. If a product does not meet user requirements, then the necessary actions are taken in the respective phase. As adjectives the difference between imperial and metric is that imperial is related to an empire, emperor, or empress while metric is of or relating to the metric system of measurement. Pages of documentation per KLOC. We can classify the most commonly used metrics into the following groups: 1. This type measures the quality of the software product delivered to the client. Analyze information domain of the application and develop counts. Matrix is a data collection mechanism, that uses collected data to derive metrics. Cost of quality: It is a measure of the performance of quality initiatives in an organization. 2. Your email address will not be published. Number of developers and testers. Ans:  FP can be computed as by following steps-, FP = count total * [0.65 + 0.01 * sum (value adj. They should be used together in the context of the quality management models. Defect detection percentage. Project Productivity = Actual Project Size / Actual effort expended in the project. You can’t control what you can’t measure – Tom Demacro (an American software engineer, author, and consultant on software engineering topics). They offer insight into the effectiveness of the software process and the projects that are conducted using the process as a framework. Testing Efficiency: Testing efficiency = 1 – ((defects found in acceptance)/ total number of testing defects) x 100. Effort variance = (Actual Effort – Planned Effort)/ Planned Effort x 100. Remedies can then be developed and the software process can be improved. Subscribe to our YouTube Channel & Be a Part of 400k+ Happy Learners Community. They are used for making strategic decisions. Prepare yourselves for the biggest … Schedule variance for a phase = (Actual Calendar days for a phase – Planned calendar days for a phase + Start variance for a phase)/ (Planned calendar days for a phase) x 100. The concept Of software metrics finds its usage as a management tool, this article covers every aspect of it. Productivity (defect detection) = Actual number of defects (review + testing) / actual effort spent on (review + testing). They are used to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of various processes. These are metrics that relate to Project Quality. Product metrics describe the characteristics of the product such as size, complexity, design features, performance, and quality level. Simple and computable. Schedule Variance: Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion is known as Schedule Variance. To characterize in order to. Customer Problems 4. Ans: We measure the effectiveness of a process by deriving a set of metrics based on outcomes of the process such as: 5) What is Product Metrics? MTTFis consistent for systems with large transactions. The time units are entirely dependent on the system & it can even be stated in the number of transactions. 3. Software Testing Metrics are the quantitative measures used to estimate the progress, quality, productivity and health of the software testing process. Most widely used metric of this type is the function point: Function point values on past projects can be used to compute, for example, the average number of lines of code per function point (e.g., 60). Jan 12 • Resources • 12541 Views • 7 Comments on Software Process and Product Metrics, 1) What are metrics? Project managers have a wide variety of metrics to choose from. These metrics enable management to understand the quality of the software, the productivity of the development team, code complexity, customer satisfaction, agile process, and operational metrics. Effort variance for a phase: The deviation between a planned and actual effort for various phases within the project. Gain an understanding of processes, products, resources, and environments. Following are the needs for the software Metrics- The Lead Time metric measures the difference between the software’s definition of a particular feature and its accessibility to the end-users. Check out our course on Introduction to PMP Certification Training. This article explains about what are importance and approaches of software process and product metrics in a very simple manner. The only way to know how/where to improve any process is to. Product metrics are related to software features only. Are dependent on the programming language. But there is a huge difference in between software and program in technical language. An effective mechanism for quality feedback. Project managers have a wide variety of metrics to choose from. That is, the metric should provide a software engineer with information that can lead to a higher quality end product. They are used to measure the efficiency and effectiveness of various processes. What metrics are essential for a project’s success? Once you have identified useful metrics, assess your organization to see whether it is capable of providing useful information for the measurement ! Defect removal efficiency = (1 – (total defects caught by customer/ total number of defects)) x 100. Ans: Importance of software Metrics: 10) How can we compute FP? The ability of team to control quality is evaluated. Project Metrics - Schedule Variance : Any difference between the scheduled completion of an activity and the actual completion is known as Schedule Variance. Normalization: compensate for complexity aspects particular to a product. Each product can be measured at any stage of its development. What is it?Software process and product metrics are quantitative measures that enable software peopleto gain insight into the efficacy of the software process and the projects that are conductedusing the process as a framework.• Who does it?Software metrics are analyzed and assessed by software managers. It should be relatively easy to learn how to derive the metric, and its computation should not demand inordinate effort or time. Difference between size oriented metrics and function oriented metrics : * Size oriented metrics deals with direct measure of the output and quality whereas Function oriented metrics deals with indirect measure of the output and quality. Learn for free! Errors uncovered before release of the software. Metrics for the product: Furthermore, Complexity of the Design Model is classified as-, 6) What are the attributes of a software metrics? 7) Explain Normalization for Metrics. Require a level of detail that may be difficult to achieve, 2. Residual defect density = (total number of defects found by a customer)/ (Total number of defects including customer found defects) x 100. 4. Measures, Metrics, and Indicators An indicator is a metric or combination of metrics that provide insight into the software process, a software project, or the product itself. Basic quality and productivity data are collected. WANT TO KNOW ABOUT SOFTWARE PEOCESS AND PRODUCT MATRICES, differece between software product and software process. Defect density: It is the number of defects detected in the software during development divided by the size of the software (typically in KLOC or FP), Defect density for a project = Total number of defects/ project size in KLOC or FP. For example, It is suitable for computer-aided design systems where a designer will work on a design for several hours as well as for Word-processor systems. What are some software development metrics examples? Ans: Software Process and Product Metrics are quantitative measures of-They are a management tool. Basically one distinguishes between product metrics and process metrics. Product metrics are software product measures at any stage of their development, from requirements to established systems. Direct measures include cost and effort applied in the development of software. 6. I have worked for Many Educational Firms in the Past. Process Metrics: Process metrics pay particular attention on enhancing the long term process of the team or organisation. Improvements in these numbers will not guarantee that your customer satisfaction levels will rise by leaps and bounds. Schedule. How do you know which parameters are the most appropriate to define and measure the successful completion of a process? Assign level of complexity or weight to each count. Metrics for PMLs: 1.baseline, 2.project management, 3.product, 4.process + feedback Process metrics can be used to improve software development and maintenance. The data can also be used to pinpoint problem areas. Right now I am in Bengaluru doing my B.E course in second year. Improved maintenance practices. They measure defects, cost, schedule, productivity and estimation of various project resources and deliverables. Ans: It tells us how does an organization combine metrics that come from different individuals or projects. There is much confusion between terms “metrics” and “key performance indicators” – “KPIs” in the context of software engineering. Read on to find out all you need to know about Project & Process Metrics for Project Management. We’ll now take a closer look at the various types of the two most important categories of metrics – Project Metrics, and Process Metrics. It’s expressed in monetary terms. Productivity (defect fixation) = actual no of defects fixed/ actual effort spent on defect fixation. Function oriented (function point approach): Function-oriented metrics use a measure of the functionality delivered by the application as a normalization value. An indicator provides insight that enables the project manager or software engineers to adjust the process, the project, or the process to make things better. A manufacturer that tracks the right metrics will be better at finding and eliminating problems that impact their product quality. Cannot easily accommodate non-procedural languages. Productivity (for test case preparation) = Actual number of test cases/ Actual effort expended in test case preparation. Metrics help in decision making. Metrics are developed for these products so that they can indicate whether a product is developed according to the user requirements. Basic quality and productivity data are collected. 3. Here is a simple example - weight and height of a person are measures and Body Mass Index, which is a function of height and weight, is a metric. Reduce costsThese goals ca… Software metrics. MTTF is described as the time interval between the two successive failures. Effort Variance: Difference between the planned outlined effort and the effort required to actually undertake the task is called Effort variance. Software metrics is a standard of measure that contains many activities which involve some degree of measurement. More consistent product quality. SW Metrics • SW process and product metrics are ... • Metric (IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terms) – A quantitative measure of the degree to which a system, ... minimize the difference between the estimated resources needed to complete a Maintenance practices also improve when the right KPIs are tracked. Metric is a measurement that can classify software or product quality and then process the quality of metrics. Software Development Life Cycle Model Size Variance: Difference between the estimated size of the project and the actual size of the project (normally in KLOC or FP). Measure specific attributes of the process. 4. 4. The goal of tracking and analyzing software metrics is to determine the quality of the current product or process, improve that quality and predict the quality once the software development project is complete. Direct measure and indirect measure. These are metrics that relate to Project Quality. These are metrics that pertain to Product Quality. 1. Schedule variance for a phase: The deviation between planned and actual schedules for the phases within a project. I belong to Amritsar, Punjab. Assess the influence of global factors that affect the application. Defect Density 3. Placement Criteria for Alstom Ltd, interview question and answers for freshersQuality ManagementSoftware Metricssoftware project managementSoftware Testing Tools. ... Agile Principles For Metrics In Software Engineering. These in-process metrics and reports cannot be used in a piecemeal fashion. Product metrics help software engineer to detect and correct potential problems before they result in catastroph… We can accurately measure some property of software or process. 2. 2. factors)], Download the pdf of the above questions with answers QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ON SOFTWARE PROCESS AND PRODUCT METRICS.pdf, Related Links- In addition to the basic metrics and reports, many other reports are useful for in-process quality management. Product metrics describe the characteristics of the product such as size, complexity, design features, performance, and quality level. Use the metrics to provide indicators that will lead to a strategy for improvement. Product metrics are combined across several projects to produce process metrics. An MTTF of 200 mean that one failure can be expected each 200-time units. Require a level of detail that may be difficult to achieve, (function point approach): Function-oriented metrics use a measure of the functionality delivered by the application as a normalization value. Productivity. 3) What are Process Metrics? The goal of software testing metrics is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness in the software testing process and to help make better decisions for further testing process by providing reliable data about the testing process. They are used to quantify defects, cost, schedule, productivity and estimation of various project resources and deliverables. Cost of quality = (review + testing + verification review + verification testing + QA + configuration management + measurement + training + rework review + rework testing)/ total effort x 100. Identify areas of improvement 3. 5. We can classify the most commonly used metrics into the following groups: These are metrics that pertain to Process Quality. I am planning to do MBA after finishing my Engineering in Foreign Trade. 1) What are metrics? On a more granular level, software development managers are trying to: 1. Three assumptions (Kitchenham) 1. These are the metrics pertaining to the Project Quality. Software Test Metrics: Before starting what is Software Test Metrics and types, I would like to start with the famous quotes in terms of metrics. Mean Time to Failure 2. Software metrics Advance Computer Architecture (ACA): Analysis … Ans: Process metrics are collected across all projects and over long periods of time. Develop a set of meaningful metrics based on these attributes. Increase return on investment (ROI) 2. Size-oriented metrics are not universally accepted as the best way to measure the software process. This is possible by collecting quality and productivity data and then analyzing and comparing these data with past averages in order to know whether quality improvements have occurred. The mathematical computation of the metric should use measures that do not lead to bizarre combinations of unit. Schedule variance = ((Actual calendar days – Planned calendar days) + Start variance)/ Planned calendar days x 100. OurEducation is an Established trademark in Rating, Ranking and Reviewing Top 10 Education Institutes, Schools, Test Series, Courses, Coaching Institutes, and Colleges. Defect removal efficiency: Quantifies the efficiency with which defects were detected and prevented from reaching the customer. Consistent and objective. The goal is to determine whether quality and productivity improvements have occurred. Requirement Stability Index: Provides visibility to the magnitude and impact of requirements changes. Metrics are derived and help us in sense making and planning the next course of action. Software metrics help project managers to gain an insight into the efficiency of the software process, project, and product. Ans: Normalization approaches: 1. Size oriented (lines of code approach): Derived by normalizing quality and/or productivity measures by considering the size of the software produced. PMP, PMI, PMBOK, CAPM, PgMP, PfMP, ACP, PBA, RMP, SP, and OPM3 are registered marks of the Project Management Institute, Inc. Have a look on this article .it is very interesting which is about A software development process, also known as a software development life-cycle (SDLC), is a structure imposed on the development of a software product. 8) Explain Normalization approaches. Gain understanding of relationships among processes and products. Ans: Following are the attributes of a software metrics-. Size variance = (Actual size – Estimated size)/ Estimated size x 100. Customer Satisfaction Identify roadblocks, root causes, inefficiencies, and other opportunities for improving product quality and process performance. , 2006). They are used to measure cost, quality, and the product’s time-to-market. Software metrics can be classified into three categories: product metrics, process metrics, and project metrics. In a later section of this article, “Putting it all together,” you’ll see why. This article contained complete information regarding software process and product metrics. Establishing a successful company-wide software metrics program can be a multi-year effort.But if we do not measure, there is no real way of determining whether we are improving. « Interview Questions on JAVA RISC / CISC », © 2020 Our Education | Best Coaching Institutes Colleges Rank | Best Coaching Institutes Colleges Rank, I am Passionate Content Writer. Productivity (Project): Is a measure of output from a related process for a unit of input. Penalize well-designed but short programs. Product metrics fall into two classes: Dynamic metrics that are collected by … The intent is to provide a set of process indicators that lead to long-term software process improvement. Programming language independent. Depend on the size and complexity of the project. They offer insight into the effectiveness of the software process and the projects that are conducted using the process as a framework. That means higher production rates with fewer rejects. In the process of software development, sometimes, you will find an instant change in the previously planned schedule. 1. Simplilearn is one of the world’s leading providers of online training for Digital Marketing, Cloud Computing, Project Management, Data Science, IT, Software Development, and many other emerging technologies. RSI = 1- ((Number of changed + Number of deleted + Number of added) / Total number of initial requirements) x100. These are metrics that pertain to Process Quality. In software development process, a working product is developed at the end of each successful phase. The distinction is not always unambiguous since some metrics are used to evaluate both products and processes. I also have done MBA from MICA. 3. They are used to quantify defects, cost, schedule, productivity and estimation of various project resources and del… Here are nine objective metrics (marked by bullet points) that you should monitor continuously, to make incremental improvements to processes and production environments. There are two types of measurement in software engineering process. Review efficiency = (number of defects caught in review)/ total number of defects caught) x 100. Metrics are expected to exhibit certain behavior. Time and effort to complete each generic activity. b) Project Metrics. 4) How can we measure the effectiveness of a Process? Jureczko and Madeyski [18] discussed the difference between product and process metrics. Google Ads Says Goodbye to Average Position and Hello to Impression Rate Metrics, Roadmap to Crack PMP® Certification Process, Understanding Agile Process: Everything You Need to Know, Big Data Hadoop Certification Training Course, AWS Solutions Architect Certification Training Course, Certified ScrumMaster (CSM) Certification Training, ITIL 4 Foundation Certification Training Course, Data Analytics Certification Training Course, Cloud Architect Certification Training Course, DevOps Engineer Certification Training Course. There are 2 types of software metrics: Product Metrics: Product metrics are used to evaluate the state of the product, tracing risks and undercovering prospective problem areas. Software metrics deals with the measurement of software product and software product development process and it guides and evaluating models and tools (Ma et al. Ans: Software Process and Product Metrics are quantitative measures of-, 2) Need for Software Metrics. It can be classified into three categories: product metrics, process metrics, and project metrics. These metrics measure the impact of organizational economics, employee satisfaction, communication, and organizational growth factors of the project. Cost of poor quality: It is the cost of implementing imperfect processes and products. A Framework for Managing, Measuring, and Predicting Attributes of Software Development Products and Processes Reflecting the immense progress in the development and use of software metrics in the past decades, Software Metrics: A Rigorous and Practical Approach, Third Edition provides an up-to-date, accessible, and comprehensive introduction to software metrics. This article is very good in explaining software metrics and also some processes involves in this. 3. Is it worth it to do it? Software Metrics Product vs. process Most metrics are indirect: No way to measure property directly or Final product does not yet exist For predicting, need a model of relationship of predicted variable with other measurable variables. Time to fix the defect 4. Thousand lines of code (KLOC) are often chosen as the normalization value. The metric should always yield results that are unambiguous. Grade significance of external factors, such reuse. Consistent in its use of units and dimensions. 1. Direct measures of the software include how many lines of code (LOC) produced, execution speed, memory size, and defects reported. Review efficiency: defined as the efficiency in harnessing/ detecting review defects in the verification stage. To measure MTTF, we can evidence the failure da… Weight each count by assessing complexity. The metric should satisfy the engineer’s intuitive notions about the product attribute under consideration 9) list importance of Software Metrics. Manage workloads 4. As software is a collection of programs and data files that are designed to perform some operations and on the other hand, program is a set of instructions that perform only a specific task that it is made for. Most software developers do not measure, and most have little desire to begin. 2. Ans. 2. Rs per KLOC- Rs per page of documentation. Cost of poor quality = rework effort/ total effort x 100. Process metrics: It can be used to improve efficiency of an existing process used in software development and maintenance. Process metrics are used to make strategic decisions about how to complete the common process framework activities. Metrics should be based on the analysis model, the design model, or the structure of the program itself. This metrics include the following − 1. Are dependent on the programming language. Process maturity levels: 1.initial, 2.repeatable, 3.defined, 4.managed, 5.optimizing ! Establish count for input domain and system. 2. Ans: They focus on the quality of deliverables. Empirically and intuitively persuasive. Project metrics: It describes the project team’s ability to perform the project execution examples. These data are analyzed, compared against past averages, and assessed. Defect density. Errors per KLOC- Errors per person-month. Defects per KLOC- KLOC per person-month. 1. Establish baselines for comparisons with future assessments. Effort variance for a phase = (Actual effort for a phase – a planned effort for a phase)/ (planned effort for a phase) x 100. Measurement is used to establish a process baseline from which improvements can be assessed. Defects delivered to and reported by the end users. But at least these are the right things to measure.
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