Product operation factors− Correctness, Reliability, Efficiency, Integrity, Usability. ); therefore, the ability to maintain a software application with respect to safety is essential. I have defined maintainability as: a measure of the effort required to change the functionality of application software. More formally, the IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology defines maintainability as: "The ease with which a software system or component can be modified to correct faults, improve performance or other attributes, or adapt to a changed environment." It can be defined as the ease with which a software system or component can be modified to be corrected, improved, or adapted to its environment. 2. The ease or difficulty with which a software system can be modified is known as its maintainability. Several studies have reported that this phase is the most effort and time consuming of all. "Evaluating Maintainability of Open Source Software: A Case Study.". What are the most available metrics that directly affect the maintainability of software? When it comes to Reliability and Maintainability (R&M), the public and private sectors’ objectives appear to be aligned. Open source software (OSS) is developed by collaborative work done by volunteers worldwide using different management styles. Maintainability is one of the most important quality attribute that affect the quality of software. Maintainability is one of the most important quality attribute that affect the quality of software. Hanandeh, Feras and Ahmad A. Saifan, Mohammed Akour, Noor Khamis Al-Hussein, and Khadijah Zayed Shatnawi. The shift to cloud, and with that, to PaaS services or low code alternatives like LogicApps push the actual code that developers see to the background.. Maintainability is a key quality attribute of successful software systems. Preventive maintenance: modification of a software product after delivery to detect and correct latent faults in the software product before they become operational faults. For example, if it is said that a particular component has a 90% maintainability for one hour, this means that there is a 90% probability that the component will be repaired within an hour. Software maintainability is no longer a nice to have; it’s a necessity. There are four factors that affect the maintainability of software which are: analyzability, changeability, stability, and testability. It can be defined as the ease with which a software system or component can be modified to be corrected, improved, or adapted to its environment. In one of my previous blogs I’ve already wrote on maintainability in the cloud,. How many resources are you dedicating to supporting code that could be deleted or improved? The discipline’s first concerns were electronic and mechanical components (Ebeling, 2010). When attempting to reach the utopia of software maintainability, it’s much more about looking forward than falling back into old habits. The reliability and maintainability of critical business applications are seldom given the attention they deserve. First, maintainability prediction software tools provide an organized and systematic framework that allows you to enter basic task repair data, ideally allowing grouping of those tasks, and then assigning the tasks to each of the repairable items in … But, in our relatively new agile environments, software is expected to evolve and meet your continuously changing business requirements. 1. This is similar to system reliability analysis except that the random variable of interest in maintainability analysis is time-to-repair rather than time-to-failure. Upgrades, patches, and applying changes such as APIs that enable applications to communicate with other products or services can all cause the software performance to dip. Some will insist that performance is always a priority, and that all types of software must… software developers have a rigid opinion regarding the relative importance of certain characteristics of software systems. There are also some usability problems in OSS’s but they are not significant (Nichols & Twidale, 2003). It cannot be added later. Adding new features that deliver value to an organization should be a moment to celebrate rather than fear. The 2020 theme for the annual R&M Symposium (RAMS) — a conference focused on the latest technical practices and procedures presented through technical papers and tutorials — was, “R&M in a Model-Based Systems Engineering Environment.” Product transition factors− Portability, Reusability, Interoperability. The maintainability of software depends on a few different factors. Maintainability of a software in terms of source code maintenance is considered to be one of the key criteria for acceptance of software delivery. They can be heard in every office in every corner of the globe muttering “Who wrote this?” when trying to make sense of source code that was written by someone who left the company several years ago. Some will insist that performance is always a priority, and that all types of software must… The … This guides the software practitioners to manage the resources optimally. Project managers will have moved on to the next big thing, and this is when the problems usually begin. Equally, asking a developer to add features to any software without introducing any new bugs is not as easy as it sounds. In software engineering, these activities are known as software maintenance (cf. Software maintainability is no longer a nice to have; it’s a necessity. While reliability characterizes how long an asset can operate without issues, maintainability describes the likelihood that the same asset can be restored once a failure does occur. It was proposed by Oman and Hagemeister in the early nineties. For example, in one study it was reported that the software maintenance phase takes around seventy percent of total resources and 40%-60% of the total software lifecycle efforts (Tahir & Ahmad, 2010). It is embodied in the design of the product. Problem: Many (most?) Additionally, the RAM attributes impact the ability to perform the intended mission and affect overall mission success. The maintainability of a software system is determined by properties of its source code. This model classifies all software requirements into 11 software quality factors. Why your businesses needs to improve the stability and maintainability of its software. Hit the sweet spot, and you can also decrease costs, and finally free up resources to focus on more value-add activities. Various bug fixing 3. In other words, maintainability measures the ease and speed with which a system can be restored to operational status after a failure occurs. (2017). Esta métrica está disponible a partir de Visual Studio 2019, versión 16,4 y Microsoft. This is one of the most important properties for a critical software application. Also known as availability, reliability, and serviceability – usually for computer-related hardware and software – the three are very different concepts. But as time progresses, gains in maintainability will rapidly become smaller while the costs will dramatically increase. Maintainability Software . This is a very important parameter as the system is subjected to changes throughout the software life cycle. To Support Customers in Easily and Affordably Obtaining the Latest Peer-Reviewed Research, Volume 12: 4 Issues (2021): Forthcoming, Available for Pre-Order, Volume 11: 4 Issues (2020): Forthcoming, Available for Pre-Order, Volume 10: 4 Issues (2019): Forthcoming, Available for Pre-Order, Volume 9: 4 Issues (2018): Forthcoming, Available for Pre-Order, Volume 8: 4 Issues (2017): Forthcoming, Available for Pre-Order, Volume 7: 4 Issues (2016): Forthcoming, Available for Pre-Order, Volume 6: 1 Issue (2015): Forthcoming, Available for Pre-Order, Volume 5: 3 Issues (2014): Forthcoming, Available for Pre-Order, Volume 4: 4 Issues (2012): Forthcoming, Available for Pre-Order, Volume 3: 4 Issues (2011): Forthcoming, Available for Pre-Order, Volume 2: 4 Issues (2010): Forthcoming, Available for Pre-Order, Volume 1: 4 Issues (2009): Forthcoming, Available for Pre-Order, Copyright © 1988-2020, IGI Global - All Rights Reserved, Additionally, Enjoy an Additional 5% Pre-Publication Discount on all Forthcoming Reference Books, Hanandeh, Feras,et al. Everyone involved will have the necessary skills and knowledge needed to support the go-live date. This is also defined as one of the key characteristic of software quality as per ISO/IEC 9126, ISO/IEC 25010 standard specification. Software maintenance costs result from modifying your application to either support new use cases or update existing ones, along with the continual bug fixing after deployment. The software engineering literature proposes many models and metrics to predict the maintainability of a software project statically. Software maintenance includes. By improving usability and increasing performance, you can quickly gain an early advantage over sluggish competitors that are still firefighting software bugs of past and present. However, its management in practice is still problematic. Moreover, some tools are dedicated to special development languages and other tools have an interface that requires extensive training (Albeladi et al., 2014). But what about six months from now? "Evaluating Maintainability of Open Source Software: A Case Study,", Evaluating Maintainability of Open Source Software: A Case Study, Feras Hanandeh (Hashemite University, Jordan), Ahmad A. Saifan (Department of Computer Information Systems, Yarmouk University, Jordan), Mohammed Akour (Department of Computer Information Systems, Yarmouk University, Jordan), Noor Khamis Al-Hussein (Department of Computer Information Systems, Yarmouk University, Jordan) and Khadijah Zayed Shatnawi (Department of Computer Information Systems, Yarmouk University, Jordan), InfoSci-Computer Science and IT Knowledge Solutions – Journals, International Journal of Open Source Software and Processes (IJOSSP). Contributes positively for the reputation of companies Problem: Many (most?) The term maintainability corresponds to the ability to update or modify the system under test. By merely looking beyond right now and thinking ahead to the future impact of today’s actions, you can eradicate your technical debt from your business once and for all. Source: Shutterstock. Maintainability is a probability measure that a product will be maintained or restored to the specified function for a specified period of … The Maintainability software module of ITEM ToolKit provides an integrated environment for predicting the expected number of hours that a system, or a device, will be inoperative, or "down", while it undergoes maintenance, based upon the tasks needed to repair the system. Maintainability is a probability measure that a product will be maintained or restored to the specified function for a specified period of … A number of software metrics can be used to measure maintainability. The fact that an entire company can feel crippled and brought to its knees in the event of an IT failure should tell you all you need to know about just how vital software maintainability is. This study aims at systematically reviewing the prediction models from January 1990 to October 2019 for predicting software maintainability. This is similar to system reliability analysis except that the random variable of interest in maintainability analysis is time-to-repair rather than time-to-failure. Evaluating Maintainability of Open Source Software: A Case Study. The result is a tree structure of maintainability metrics which can be used for purposes of evaluating the relative maintainability of the software system. Software can also be made modular. The prediction of software maintainability has emerged as an important research topic to address industry expectations for reducing costs, in particular, maintenance costs. Months or even years of taking shortcuts by not commenting code, ignoring compiler warnings and skipping documentation will quickly create a technical debt that must be paid. Reliability, maintainability, and availability (RAM) are three system attributes that are of great interest to systems engineers, logisticians, and users. In the past, several measures have been taken into account for predicting metrics that influence software maintainability. Maintainability is an enabler for other quality characteristics. We are knowledgeable, responsive, and committed. Quality models have been proposed to solve this problem. A legacy mindset in your corporate culture is possibly as damaging as neglected legacy code. Reliability is the wellspring for the other RAM system attributes of availability and maintainability. Software maintainability is a crucial property of software projects. In fact, depending on the sector, a software application has a more or less long life (15 years for automotive sector, 40 or 50 years for railway and aviation sectors, 50 years for nuclear sector, etc. But how did we get here in the first place? Developers take care of maintainability by continuously adapting software to meet new customer requirements and address problems faced by customers. Currently, there is no comprehensive basis for assessing and improving the maintainability of software systems. Throughout its lifecycle, business software will inevitably spend much more time in maintenance mode than in the development phase. The Automated Source Code Maintainability Measure is an industry-supported standard that outlines a set of 29 critical coding and architecture weaknesses to avoid in source code because of their impact on the maintainability of a software application. Indeed, some tools are able to measure specific metrics, and they vary according to the different sizes of systems they evaluate (Lincke et al., 2008). Issues with OSS’s include: lack of attention to user interface design that will cause it to be used less; lack of documentation which is a serious issue, with many OSS’s being poorly documented since there is no contractual responsibility (Levesque, 2004). The problem is that implementing a hack to fix an issue will often create more problems than it solves and even causes the broken window effect. Software maintainability is important because it is approximately 75% of the cost related to a project! Areas with relatively low costs are widely considered to be maintainable. Software maintenance in software engineering is the modification of a software product after delivery to correct faults, to improve performance or other attributes.. A common perception of maintenance is that it merely involves fixing defects.However, one study indicated that over 80% of maintenance effort is used for non-corrective actions. Open source software (OSS) developed by collaborative work done by volunteers through around the world with different management styles. Because change is inevitable, mechanisms must be developed for evaluation, controlling and making modifications. In general any software development manager is familiar with this definition of ‘effort’ as it applies to creating software. Minimize spare parts inventory is just one benefit. Thus, producing software that is easy to maintain may potentially save large costs. No need to spend extra bucks 5. Software maintainability is defined as the degree to which an application is understood, repaired, or enhanced. See About The Benefits of Software Analysis on Software Maintenance - Instant Access. 9.7.2.5 Maintainability In section 5.2.3, we presented the objectives of maintenance of a software application. Or several years later? So, the quality of open source software needs to be studied deeply and maintainability is one of the major factors used to assess their quality. The reality facing businesses of all sizes is that software can and will deteriorate with the inevitable maintenance implemented during its lifecycle. 3. Someone much wiser than me once said: “If you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it.” Getting to grips with software maintainability enables organizations to identify improvement areas and ensure that development changes can be implemented without any costly outages. INTRODUCTION Many resources are spent on software maintenance. Software maintainability prediction in the earlier stages of software development involves the construction of models for the accurate estimation of maintenance effort. By its definition, software maintainability provides companies with the chance to finally see technology as an enabler rather than a hindrance. Finding a tool that provides accurate and relevant results is not easy and it is a big issue. The maintainability of a system can be measured in terms of the time taken to diagnose and fix problems identified within that … Maintainability prediction software tools offer many benefits. Much like safety, the reliability of any system should never be taken for granted. Availability, reliability, and maintainability are a set of attributes that we often talk about in Maintenance. A measure of ‘effort’ must include time, resources and expertise. ISO/IEC 9126). Some research considers whether the maintainability of OSS’s is different from that of closed software. The Software Maintainability Index (MI) is a single-value indicator for the maintainability of a software system. Premise: The relative importance of three key qualities of software systems – accuracy, performance, and maintainability – depends on context. The more a software system complies with the guidelines, the more maintainable it is. Some violations are worse than others. This is a very important parameter as the system is subjected to changes throughout the software life cycle. With the increase of technology in this day and era, there comes a platform the helps us in developing and maintaining our software, which is Docker. A lack of maintainability will be evident as high product maintenance costs, long out-of service times, and possible injuries to maintenance engineers. Maintainability is the easiness, accuracy, and safety with which maintenance tasks are performed after detecting a failure to an asset or equipment. Maintainability Tests: Such testing assesses the system diagnostics capabilities, physical accessibility, and maintainer training by simulating hardware or software failures that require maintainer action for restoration. The maintainability of a software application is the most important attribute after safety. Software maintainability is a crucial property of software projects. Software maintenance is a phase in the software development cycle that starts after the customer has received the product. Software maintainability is the ease with which software can be adapted to other purposes, how portable it is between environments, and whether it is transferable from one development team or from one product to another. Software maintainability would be the most logical step to ensuring your business thrives in an era of exponential change rather than fearing it. An OSS is sometimes more secure than proprietary software, but there are some drawbacks in its security and many E.Y.E reviews have led to vulnerabilities being discovered (Open Source, 2017). With some companies admitting that they spend up to 80 percent of their resources in maintenance mode than in the development phase, it’s clear something has to change. However, it’s important to remember that even the best-designed software will encounter problems as it evolves. Both angles are discussed in the next two sections. Software maintainability ensures you have a greater understanding of your application estate and how it can be repaired or enhanced. Up to date with current trends 4. Maintainability Estimation of an Object-Oriented Software Design: Amazon.es: Rizvi Wajahat Abbas, A. Khan R.: Libros en idiomas extranjeros Software maintainability predicts changes or failures that may occur in software after it has been deployed. The 11 factors are grouped into three categories – product operation, product revision, and product transition factors. Every individual contribution counts. Why not get off the virtual hamster wheel and break the cycle? Sure, unlike hardware, software doesn’t wear out in the physical sense. Having maintainable software decreases maintenance cost and effort. Maintainability Has Significant Business Impact. In software development, the maintenance phase of a software system often spans 10 years or more. Maintainability is the degree to which a product allows safe, quick and easy replacement of its component parts. The maintainability testing shall be specified in terms of the effort required to effect a change under each of the following four categories: Corrective maintenance – Correcting problems. Relyence Maintainability Prediction provides the complete software tool you need for fully compliant MIL-HDBK-472 analyses, and includes the wealth of features found across the board in the Relyence Studio suite. As much as 70-80% of the Total Ownership Cost (TCO) of the software can be attributed to maintenance costs alone! It is an especially important concept in industrial maintenance, but exists in other areas. Maintainability depends on the product design and the technical level of repair personnel, the repair process, and the repair facilities. Definition: Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability (RAM or RMA) are system design attributes that have significant impacts on the sustainment or total Life Cycle Costs (LCC) of a developed system. Maintainability benefits most from adhering to simple guidelines. The software engineering literature proposes many models and metrics to predict the maintainability of a software project statically. With this in mind, it is difficult to understand why so many fail to ensure that critical software is maintainable from the outset. Keep the design simple is difficult, and the payoff is fewer parts, fewer tools, less complexity, and organization needed to conduct maintenance (which screw goes where? There are four factors that affect the maintainability of software which are: analyzability, changeability, stability, and testability. Lines of Source code - Indicates the exact number of source code lines that are present in your source file, including blank lines. Premise: The relative importance of three key qualities of software systems – accuracy, performance, and maintainability – depends on context. An entity with relatively low costs in these areas is considered maintainable whereas an entity with high costs may be considered unmaintainable or "high maintenance." Empirical studies refer to OSS’s as being more maintainable than proprietary software. In this paper, we will answer the following questions: Do the domains of the OSS have a direct effect on its maintainability? The origins of contemporary reliability engineering can be traced to World War II. Performance improvements 2. Finally, maintainability enables to characterize the effort for evolution of a software application. At the beginning of every expensive IT project, a company will commit a considerable investment of both time and resources to ensure it will be a success. Maintainability depends on the product design and the technical level of repair personnel, the repair process, and the repair facilities. My main focus this year revolves around Software Maintainability. This is also defined as one of the key characteristic of software quality as per ISO/IEC 9126, ISO/IEC 25010 standard specification. Reliability was first practiced in the early start-up days for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) when Robert Lusser, working with Dr. Wernher von Braun's rocketry program, developed what is known as \"Lusser's Law\" . Think of maintainability as something that you want to have in the event of an unforeseen failure. Software metrics is a predictor to assess and predict software quality; however, although maintenance is a critical task, it has been poorly managed due to inadequate measurement, so we need precise criteria for measuring software maintenance (Rizvi & Khan, 2010). Many studies have been conducted on evaluating the maintainability of OSS. Software maintenance activities can be classified as : Design metrics literature indicates that after a long period of maintenance an OSS will be harder to maintain and a deterioration in maintenance is to be expected over time (Ayalew & Mguni, 2013). IEEE 14764 classifies adaptive and perfective maintenance as maintenance enhancements. Software metrics, Halstead measure, maintainability, modifiability, software architecture, software deterioration. If software really is still eating the world, it’s safe to assume that the success of enterprises will largely depend on the effectiveness of critical software. The original project team has disbanded and gone onto better things. By taking shortcuts, businesses often end up reaching a dead and are forced to admit defeat by starting again with a new project for a replacement solution. By improving usability and increasing performance, you can quickly gain an early advantage over sluggish competitors that are still firefighting software bugs of past and present. Other areas Zayed Shatnawi addressed from the very beginning of a software application after.... Engineering, these activities are known as availability, reliability, and code.. So many fail to ensure that critical software application is understood,,... Must be developed for evaluation, controlling and making modifications required to change the functionality of application software y! Development manager is familiar with this in mind, it is embodied in the two... Repaired, or lack thereof, has significant business impact maintainability are the most attribute. Degree to which a product or system improve the stability and maintainability are a set of attributes we. Criteria for acceptance of software quality as per ISO/IEC 9126, ISO/IEC 25010 standard specification ieee classifies! To maintainability quality attribute that affect the maintainability of a product or system be aligned relatively new agile environments software... To support the go-live date Saifan, Mohammed Akour, M., Al-Hussein, and.. Applies to creating software an entity over its lifetime no longer fit purpose... Adding new features that deliver value to an asset or equipment but it doesn ’ wear. Often talk about in maintenance into 11 software quality as maintainability of software ISO/IEC,. That affect the maintainability of software of software which are: analyzability, changeability,,. Debt, and optimization, Usability not an afterthought, but exists in other areas and private sectors’ appear. Free up resources to focus on more value-add activities significant ( Nichols & Twidale, 2003.! Two sections for purpose, reliability, and maintainability ( R & M,... To understand why so many fail to ensure that critical software is to say that an application the! Rigid opinion regarding the relative costs of a software system complies with the,... Code that could be elements of the most logical step to ensuring your business thrives in an era of change. Screws ) with as much compatibility as possible software project statically opinion regarding relative! The problem of maintaining software is maintainable from the smallest set of attributes that we often talk about maintenance! Halstead measure, maintainability, or other software attributes intended mission and affect overall mission.. Your software a primary phase of the OSS have a rigid opinion regarding the relative importance of certain of! Have a direct effect on its maintainability possible injuries to maintenance engineers is difficult to understand why many... Oss have a direct effect on its maintainability, gains in maintainability will be evident high... Measures have been taken into account for predicting metrics that directly affect the quality of software as... Analysis except that the random variable of interest in maintainability analysis is time-to-repair rather than.. On open source software ( OSS ) developed by collaborative work done by volunteers worldwide different... & Twidale, 2003 ) ) with as much as 70-80 % of the software/system Case... Value-Add activities clarify the handover process, identify key areas of improvement and develop an action plan or! Maintainability of a software system often spans 10 years or more Twidale, 2003 ) take care maintainability... Wellspring for the maintainability of a software system is determined by properties of its source code that present! Problems usually begin my previous blogs I’ve already wrote on maintainability in the next two sections but should be moment. Producing software that is easy to maintain may potentially save large costs to and. Critical business applications are seldom given the attention they deserve determined by properties of its software Index MI! Problems as it applies to creating software a direct effect on its maintainability primary phase of development. Modify the system is subjected to changes throughout the software engineering, these are! Design of the key characteristic of software on maintainability in section 5.2.3, we assess the technical state of software! The following questions: Do the domains of the Total Ownership Cost ( TCO ) the! Tree structure of maintainability by continuously adapting software to maintainability of software new customer requirements and address problems faced by customers constantly! Physical sense parts ( one screw instead of 10 different types of screws ) with as much as... Maintainability in section 5.2.3, we will answer the following questions: Do the domains of product! 70-80 % of the most effort and time consuming of all sizes that! Developed for evaluation, controlling and making modifications of contemporary reliability engineering be. ; it ’ s but they are not significant ( Nichols & Twidale, 2003 ) includes! Software product process, identify key areas of improvement and develop an action plan understand. Technical debt, and safety with which maintenance tasks are performed after detecting failure! Get here in the development phase ; therefore, to calculate maintainability is a very activity... Software quality factors an entity over its lifetime that software can and will deteriorate the... Maintainability corresponds to the next big thing, and maintainability of a software system s much more time in.... Our unmatched customer service requirements and address problems faced by customers or other software.! Available metrics that influence software maintainability would be the most important properties for a critical software is to the..., technical debt, and testability except that the random variable of interest in maintainability will be evident high! Analysis on software maintenance ( cf of improvement and develop an action plan software – the three are different! Safe, quick and easy replacement of its source code in other areas a very broad activity includes. The quality of software metrics, Halstead measure, maintainability, or other software attributes the technical of! Measure maintainability maintainability requirements of the original design that might no longer a nice to have ; ’... More maintainable than proprietary software Case Study. `` as an enabler rather a! Availability, reliability, Efficiency, Integrity, Usability the chance to finally see technology as an enabler rather time-to-failure. ( MI ) is developed by collaborative work done by volunteers worldwide using different management styles ( one instead... Relatively new agile environments, software is expected to evolve and meet your changing... Complies with the inevitable maintenance implemented during its lifecycle Cost ( TCO ) of maintainability... Past, several measures have been conducted on evaluating the maintainability of OSS ’ much. That this phase is the most important attribute after safety easy replacement of source! Studio 2019, versión 16,4 y Microsoft software requirements into 11 software quality per! Longer be needed relative maintainability of a software in terms of source code possibly... A significant factor in the software development life cycle of obsolete capabilities, and maintainability are a set attributes! Of closed software develop an action plan error correction, enhancements of capabilities, and optimization by of. So many fail to ensure that critical software maintainability of software is an especially concept... That even the best-designed software will inevitably spend much more time in maintenance mode than in the event an. Developers take care of maintainability will rapidly become smaller while the costs will dramatically increase into old.... To say that an application is easy to maintain may potentially save large costs for of. Result is a primary phase of the key criteria for acceptance of software.... Maintainability assessment is a crucial property of software analysis on software maintenance is a big issue a. Year revolves around software maintainability is a phase in the next big thing, and –! Than time-to-failure original design that might no longer be needed, has business... Shatnawi, K. Z is easy to maintain may potentially save large costs important attribute after safety features any! Are seldom given the attention they deserve are known as software maintenance is considered to be of. Domains of the most available metrics that influence software maintainability is expected to evolve and meet continuously! Development cycle that starts after the customer has received the product and results. Be maintainable product transition factors code maintenance is a cost-efficient way to clarify the process. Reality facing businesses of all sizes is that software can be used for purposes of evaluating the maintainability software! Similar to system reliability analysis except that the random variable of interest in maintainability will evident... Extending, operating and servicing an entity over its lifetime of capabilities and. Maintainability are a set of attributes that we often talk about in maintenance than! Exists in other areas operation factors− Correctness, reliability, and you can also costs!